|1. Nature (as natural forms, species, atoms, or reason) is the
unchanging basis of all things.
||1. God (as supernatural) is the unchanging basis of all things,
including the natural universe.
|2. The universe, in some sense, is eternal.
||2. God is eternal; the universe comes to be in time.
|3. God or gods are within nature as a whole.
||3. God is supernatural.
|4. Nature is reliable and supportive.
||4. Nature is not reliable and supportive, but tainted by sin.
|5. The natural is better than the artificial because it seeks
its own ends (Aristotle).
||5. The natural is itself "artificial," since it is the
product of divine creation.
|6. Nature moves itself (Aristotle). The "unmoved mover"
is part of nature.
||6. Nature is moved by God; God is the efficient cause of the universe.
|7. Human beings are by nature social and political (Aristotle).
||7. Human beings, corrupted by sin, are unsocial, aggressive, and
self-seeking (see Augustine).
|8. Human beings have a natural desire for knowledge.
||8. Human beings tend, because of sin, to self-deception and error.
|9. Justice can be achieved (to some extent).
||9. Justice is not to be expected in this life, but only in the
|10. Human beings can achieve happiness in this life.
|10. Human beings can achieve happiness only in the next life.
|11. Human nature can be trusted and can be improved through its
||11. Human nature cannot be trusted. Without God, it can do nothing.
With God, it can do all things.
|12. One must use one's own reason. Reason is the seat of authority
for the individual.
||12. One must rely upon the grace of God. God redeems fallen human
nature, through the instrumentality of the Church.
|13. The city and its laws (nomoi) cultivate (educate) human nature.
||13. Government restrains the natural aggressiveness of fallen
human nature; God, through the Church, redeems human nature.
|14. Conversation and friendship among human beings "saves"
or improves them, or at the very least assists them in saving themselves.
||14. Conversation and friendship with God are what is most important.
No human being can save another human being. No human being can
|15. Political stability is necessary for happiness.
||15. Political stability is irrelevant to salvation.
|16. Human beings are part of nature.
||16. Human beings have immortal souls, individually created by