Reflection in the Situation -- Pragmatism (after Dewey)
by Gordon L. Ziniewicz

Energy diverted from overt action to thought; momentum of action turns inward (one stops to think).

Imagination runs ahead to imaginary completion of course of action; projection of ends and ideals; one realizes where he/she was headed.

Analysis of the situation to find out what has gone wrong; looking at the facts of the situation; intellectualizing the problem. Seeing what can be "worked with" (resources).

Use of past information to understand the present and to project the future.

Thinking of a variety of "ways" out of the situation which will resolve the present conflict in the best way possible. Projecting new possible ends (new headings).

Looking back to the facts to find appropriate means. Changing one's understanding of the problem in the light of new aims and new possible directions.

Testing each possible course of action in the imagination to see how it might turn out (possible consequences).

Evaluation of each course of action (each series of acts) and its possible consequences in the light of standards (desirable and undesirable, good and bad, etc.) worked out from previous experience with the help of custom.

Decision (choosing one course of action).

Return from thought to overt action. One sets out in the new direction mapped by reflection.

Actual consequences differ from anticipated consequences, initiating a new reflection.

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