or Soul ("Ghost")
Physical or Extended Substance
consciousness and objects of consciousness (simple and compound
(three-dimensional) matter in motion (including one's own body).
determine itself; is absolutely free; can accept or reject any notion.
determined (moved) by other bodies in accordance with mechanical
laws (nature is like a clock, where one part moves another).
(compare to the living soul in Aristotle).
by others (compare to the artificial in Aristotle)
where I am king: the city of the mind can be torn down and rebuilt
so as to be logically ordered; one can tear down past systems of
ideas and start over).
where I am a subject: the external city should not be torn down
and rebuilt; others have authority over my body (the Church and
order is possible.
order is impossible.
where obscurity and confusion can be overcome; certainty can be
achieved through clear and distinct ideas.
where obscurity and confusion cannot be overcome; words cannot adequately
represent clear and distinct ideas.
of truth: metaphysics is based on intuition and deduction of clear
and distinct innate ideas (soul, God, and body); however there is
no innate idea of justice; the mind has no absolute standards
for ethics/politics, though it does have standards for measuring
and manipulating nature (science and technology).
of action: ethics and politics; human conduct must be adjusted in
accord with imperfect social custom (nomoi) and the teachings
of the Church (there are no absolute moral standards discoverable
by reason alone).
revolution (methodic doubt and meditation).
conformity (obey the laws, though imperfect).
in thought can be overcome.
and inconsistency in speech and action unavoidable.
means progress in mathematics and science leading to progress in
technologies that provide health and conveniences and tools; mental
progress means knowing more (scientific progress).
means achieving power over bodily nature, ability to manipulate
matter in motion (prolonging life and providing comforts and useful
equipment); progress means technological progress, not social progress
or social reform.